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17. Hajj
Hayaatul Muslimeen(Life of Muslims)
17. Hajj
Hajj is Fardh when the conditions thereof are found, in the absence of the necessary conditions, Hajj is Nafl, like Salaat, Saum (Fasting), and Zakaat, and Hajj too is of fundamental importance. It is one of the Pillars of Islam.
1. Allah Ta'ala says:

"It is obligatory upon people to make Hajj of this House (Ka'aba) for the sake of Allah. It is obligatory on the person who has the means of reaching there.” (Aayat 97. Surah Aale Imraan)

If Hajj has become Fardh on a person, observance of Salaat, Saum (Fasting), and Zakaat will not suffice for salvation (Najaat). Hajj is a demonstration of love for Allah. The flavour of love, which permeates the acts of Hajj, distinguishes it from other Ibaadat. Thus those who possess love for Allah Ta'ala will perform Hajj. Even if their love is deficient, it will be strengthened by their engagement in the acts of love, which belong to the Ibaadat of Hajj. Love for Allah, if established in the heart will solidify one's Deen; the presence of love for Allah in the heart establishes one's Deen on a firm basis. Hajj is specially efficacious for strengthening one's Deen.

2. Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"Making Tawaaf of Baitullah, to walk between Safaa and Marwah and to pelt stones (at the Jimaar) have been ordained for establishing the remembrance of Allah Ta'ala." (Abu Dawood)

An observer might wonder at the wisdom underlying the circumambulation, the running and the pelting, but the Muslim should not be concerned about the wisdoms beneath these acts. Render these acts believing them to be the commands of Allah Ta'ala and that His Remembrance will be grounded in the heart by observing these acts. The relationship of the Believer with Allah Ta'ala is strengthened and his love is tested. Without understanding the wisdom of these acts. The Muslim in love with Allah, executes them because of the Command of Allah Ta'ala. All Commands of Allah Ta'ala are carried out because of His love.

The acts of Hajj are permeated with love. Love overwhelms intelligence regarding the acts of Hajj. Idhtiba (baring the shoulder) and Raml (walking with shoulders swaying in soldier-like fashion) - acts done in Hajj - were initiated in the beginning as a display of physical strength when there was yet kuffaar domination over Makkah. However, these practices were retained even after Allah Ta'ala destroyed the power of the kuffaar and established Islam over Makkah. Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu
anhu) states in this regard:
"Inspite of the cause of these acts no longer existing, we shall not give them up, for we rendered these acts since the time of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) himself rendered these acts in Hajjatul Wida when there was not a single kaafir in Makkah." (Abu Dawood)

If Hajj was not dominated by the attitude of love, these acts Idhtiba, Raml and running would have been terminated because of already having served their purpose.

Hadhrat Aabis Bin Rabeeah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that once
Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) after kissing Hajr-e-Aswad (The Black
Stone) said:
"I know that you are a stone. You can neither benefit nor harm anyone. If I did not see Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) kissing you, I would not have kissed you." (Abu Dawood)

Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) kissed the stone merely because he saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) doing so. It was the relationship of love with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) which motivated Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) to kiss Hajr-e-Aswad, and by his statement, Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) clarified the Muslims do not regard Hajr-e-Aswad as an object of worship.

Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) placed his lips on Hajr-e-Aswad and for a long while remained in this state crying. When Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) turned around, he saw Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) also crying. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

"0 Umar! This is indeed an occasion of shedding tears." (Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah, Haakim, Baihaqi)

This too is a demonstration of love.

Hadhrat Jaabir (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"When it is the Day of Arafat when all the Hujjaaj gather), Allah Ta'ala says to the Malaaikah: `look at My servants. They have come to Me from far off, crying to Me in their state of forlornness and worry while they are wandering around in the heat. I make you witness that I have forgiven them.'" (Baihaqi. Ibn Khuzaimah)

A few narrations which indicate the nature of love of the acts of Hajj have been mentioned. All acts of Hajj, it will he found, are permeated with the flavour of love. A cursory glance at the various rites of Hajj will make this abundantly clear. Wandering in the hills of Muzdalifah and Arafat; shouting and proclaiming 'Labbaik'; wandering about bareheaded; donning two unsewn garments; wearing garments like the dead; refraining from cutting or trimming the hair and nails; not even being allowed to kill lice; running to and fro between Safaa and Marwah; circumambulating the Ka'aba; kissing the Black Stone; glancing with melancholy at the Ka'aba; pelting the Pillars; sacrificing animals; together with the many prohibitions and restrictions are all acts which are strongly influenced by Love for Allah Ta'ala. In this ibaadat of Hajj, love overwhelms intelligence. The Ibaadat of Hajj is for those in love - in love with their Creator.

Certain things in these acts are waived for women because of the Shariah's consideration of Purdah.

Like the acts of Hajj are permeated with love, so too are the places, viz., Makkah Mukarramah and surroundings where these rites of love are offered. The holy places too play their part in strengthening the love of Allah in the hearts of the Mu'mineen who have come to offer their love to their Creator. It is mentioned in the Qur'aan Shareef in Surah Ibraheem, that Nabi Ibraheem (alayhis salaam) while making dua requested Allah Ta'ala to incline the hearts of people to his progeny who will settle around the Holy Ka'aba. Allah Ta'ala accepted this dua and its effect is plainly visible to all Muslims. There is not a single Mu'min whose heart is not attached to the Ka'aba.

Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) says that if Hadhrat Ibraheem (alayhis salaam) had not specified 'the hearts of some people' in his dua, then even multitudes of Jews and Christians would have gathered at the Ka'aba. But, because Nabi Ibraheem (alayhis salaam) asked for only the hearts of Believers to be inclined to his progeny who settled in the vicinity of the Ka'aba, it (Ka'aba) has become a place of love and veneration for only Believers.

Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that on the occasion when Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) migrated from Makkah, he turned towards the city as he was departing and said in grief and sorrow: "How pure and beloved a city you are to me. If my people had not expelled me, I would never have left you to live elsewhere."

Since every Mu'min has a bond of love with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), it is only necessary that this love will extend to the city, which Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) loved so dearly. Thus, love for Makkah Muazzamah is the result of the dua of two Nabis, viz., Nabi Ibraheem (alayhis salaam) and Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

What has been so far explained is the true, actual and Deeni significance of Hajj and the places of Hajj. Besides these Deeni significances there are also some worldly benefits in Hajj although one's intention and gaze must not be on the worldly advantages. Without even being concerned of the worldly benefits, they are acquired automatically.

Another Ibaadat similar to Hajj is Umrah, which is a Sunnatul Muakkadah obligation. Umrah too is an Ibaadat of love and consists of certain acts, which are rendered, in Hajj. For this reason Umrah has been described as 'Hajj As-ghar' or 'Lesser Hajj'. Umrah is rendered during the period of Hajj as well. Thus two Ibaadat of the greatest significance are united on one occasion. Besides the period of Hajj, the Ibaadat of Umrah may be discharged at any other time also.
Allah Ta'ala says in the Qur'aan:
“Fulfill Hajj and Umrah in full measure for the sake of Allah.”

It is necessary to observe all conditions, acts and etiquettes of these acts of Ibaadat. In addition, of the greatest importance is sincerity of intention.

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that whoever fails to perform Hajj inspite of having the means and inspite of their being nothing to prevent him, may die as a Jew or Christian. This stern warning applies to those who forgo the Fardh Hajj for no valid Shar'i reason. The harshness of this warning indicates the absolute importance of Hajj. Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"Whoever intends to go on Hajj should make a haste." (Mishkaat)

Hadhrat Ibn Mas'ood (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"Unite Hajj and Umrah (during the Hajj period). Both (acts of Ibaadat) eliminate poverty and sins in a similar way in which the impurities of gold, silver and iron are eliminated. The reward of a Hajj
which was performed correctly is nothing other than Jannat." (Mishkaat)

The above hadith mentions a worldly benefit and a Deeni benefit, viz., elimination of poverty and elimination of sins. Sins here refer to Huququllah (sins committed against Allah Ta'ala and in which the rights of others were not involved). Regarding Huququl Ibad (the rights of others), sins committed in this relation are not forgiven even by martyrdom. For the forgiveness of sins involving the rights of others it is essential to obtain first the pardon of those whose rights were usurped or destroyed.

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"Allah Ta'ala accepts the dua of' the one who performs Hajj and
Umrah and if he seeks forgiveness, Allah Ta'ala forgives him."

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"Whoever sets out for Hajj, Umrah or Jihad but dies on the journey (before being able to render these obligations), Allah Ta'ala records for him the thawaab of the ghaazi (one who returns victorious from
the Jihaad field) and the thawaab of one who has performed the Hajj and Umrah." (Mishkaat)

In relation to Hajj there is another act of Ibaadat as well. This is the Ziyaarah (Visiting) of the auspicious Raudhah (Grave) of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). The majority of Ulama say that the visit to the gracious Raudhah of Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alayhis wasallam) is Mustahab. This act too is permeated with love. While Hajj is love for Allah Ta'ala, Ziyaarah of the Holy Raudhah is love for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Hajj produces progress in the love of Allah Ta'ala and Ziyaarah of the Holy Raudhah produces progress in the love for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"The one who after having made Hajj visits me after my death (i.e. visits the Holy Raudhah) is like one who has visited me while I was alive." (Mishkaat)

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) has equated visiting his Grave to visiting him when he was alive. The tremendous significance of Ziyaarah of the Raudha-e-Mubaarak should thus be manifest. The benefit to be gained is indeed great. The effect of Ziyaarah is the inculcation of love in the heart for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) similar to the effect of love was which generated in the hearts of Believers when they visited Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) during his lifetime. Increase in love for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) by Ziyaarah of the Holy Grave is readily felt in the hearts of the true Believers. This is a true and common experience for all those who make the Ziyaarah to the auspicious Grave of Rasulullah  (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

Madinah Munawwarah too, is a place of holiness and love like Makkah Muazzamah. Hadhrat Abu Hurairah narrates in a lengthy hadith that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) made dua to Allah Ta'ala and said:
"0 Allah! He (i.e. Nabi Ibraheem - alayhis salaam) made dua to You for Makkah. I make dua to You for Madinah...)" (Mishkaat)

Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"0 Allah! Make Madinah beloved to us just as we love Makkah ...and even more beloved than Makkah..." (Mishkaat)

Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that when Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) returned from a journey, he would spur on his camel as soon as he saw the houses of Madinah. This, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would do so as to reach Madinah quickly. This action indicates the profound love, which Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had for Madinah Munawwarah.

Hadhrat Yahya Ibn Saeed (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"On the surface of the earth there is no place which I love more for my grave to be located than Madinah." (Mishkaat)

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) repeated this statement thrice.

The aforegoing narrations will suffice to indicate the profound love, which engulfs the acts of Hajj, Umrah, Ziyaarah and the Holy Places. The love of all these is indeed embedded in the hearts of the Believers, There is no need to provide proof for this. Believers who are by the means should, therefore, not neglect these noble, important and great acts of Ibaadat. These acts are indeed a great treasure.
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