Hadeeth explains the Quraan
Foreword | Hadeeth explains the Quraan | Definition of Qiyaas & Ijtihaad | Types of Masa'il Qiyaas is made | Difference between Mujtahid & Muqallid | Taqleed of one Imaam | Changing Mazhabs | Some Of The Conditions Of Ijtihaad
Hadeeth explains the Quraan
HADITH SHAREEF EXPLAINS THE MEANING OF THE QURAAN-E-KAREEM
The fountain of Hedaayat is the Quraan-e-Kareem. Allah Ta'ala says, it is guidance for mankind (Surah Baqara A'yat 2). Generally in the Quraan-e-Kareem the fundamental principles (Usool) have been stated.
Rasulullah (sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has explained these fundamental principles, Allah Ta'ala says:
"Li-tu-bayyina-linnaas maa-nazala ilayhim"
so that you may explain to the people that which has been sent to them.
E.g. 1. In the Quraan-e-Kareem Allah Ta'ala says, Establish Salaah. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has explained in detail how many rakaats should be read; when they should be read: after which rakaats qaieda (sifting position) should be made; in which rakaats only AI-hamd must be read; in which rakaats a sura should be joined; in which salaat qiraat should be read loudly; in which it should be read softly. It is difficult to understand these details directly from the Quraan-e-Kareem.
E.g. 2. Allah Ta'ala says, Give Zakaat. The Qur'aan-e-Kareem does not explain in detail the nisaab of Zakaat in gold, silver, animals (camels, cows, goats and sheep) and the amount that should be given. All this has been stated in the Ahaadith.
E.g. 3. It is obligatory upon man to make Hajj of Allah Ta'ala's house.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has explained the method of tawaaf; how many rounds there are in Tawaaf; going to Arafat, Mina; MuzdaIifah; pelting of the Jamaraats and all the masaa'il pertaining to it.
These are just three basic examples that are given. It is not possible to understand the Quraan-e-Kareem without the Hadith. The Ummat has been commanded to take guidance from the Quraan-e-Kareem as taught by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). To obey Rasulullah (saIalahu Alayhi wasaIam) is to obey Allah Ta'ala.
Anyone who obeys the Rasool has indeed obeyed Allah Ta'ala.
That is why it is related in the Hadith:
"Read Salaat as you have seen me reading Salaat." (Bukhari VoL 1 Page 1076).
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) did not say read Salaat according to your understanding from the Quraan-e-Kareem.
Types of Hadith
a.What came out from the very mouth of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is known as verbal Hadith.
b.What Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) showed by action is known as Hadlth-e-felie (Practically done by Rasulullah (salalahu Alayhi Wasallam)
c.What was done by someone else in the presence of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) or was done in Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam's) absence and was brought to the notice of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaiyhi Wasallam) and he did not criticize or refute it, but kept quiet is known as:-
(authenticated by Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam).
All these three types of Ahaadith are a source of Hedaayat and guidance for the Ummat.
Qiyas (analogical reasoning):
At times people asked Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi wasalam) a certain Mas'ala. Rasululah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied, and then asked the questioner a masaIa, the answer of which was obviously known, when he answered the question. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said the answer to your question is similar to this.
E.g. someone asked: Hajj is obligatory upon my mother. If I have to make the Hajj on her behalf (with her permission) will she be discharged of her obligation? Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied yes and then asked if she had a debt and you pay the debt, will the debt be paid: She replied yes. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied it is more appropriate for the debt of Allah to be paid. (Bukhari V0L. 2 Page 1O88)
This in Shariat is known as Qiyaas, ijtihaad, and istimbaat.
This too has been taught by Rasulullah (SaIallahu Alayhi wasallam).
It's conditions and details are present in the kitaabs of Usool.
It becomes necessary when any mas'ala is not clearly understood from the Quraan and Hadith.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) appointed Hazrat Ma'aaz bin Jabal (Radiallahu Anhu) as the Qadhi of Yemen. He gave him extensive advice and saw him off till he was a distance away.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) asked him. On what basis will you pass judgment? Hazrat Ma'aaz (Radiallahu Anhu) replied with the Quraan-e-Kareem.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) asked: “If you do not find it in the Kitaab of Allah (Quraan-e-Kareem)? He replied with the Sunnat (Hadith) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam).
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) asked. If you do not find it in the Sunnat of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) nor in the Kitaab of Allah? He replied. “I will make ijtihaad.”
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) commended him and became pleased with his reply. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said:
All praise be to Allah Who has guided the messenger (Hazrat Ma'aaz R.A.) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) with that, which pleases the Rasool of Allah. (Abu Dawood. Vol. 2 Pg. 149.)